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By Bela Balassa (auth.)

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S Prices, Incentives and Economic Growth 13 Over a decade ago, Britain found support for the proposition that social security contributions are borne by the wage earner, irrespective of whether they are paid by the employer or the employee. 6 between wages and health and life insurance alone. 20 However, the study includes only voluntary contributions by employers to retirement, health insurance, and life insurance plans, all of which are subject to negotiations with the labor unions that cover wages as well as fringe benefits.

16 Excessively high real interest rates, resulting from the application of restrictive monetary policies, may also have adverse economic effects, however, by discouraging socially profitable investment and hindering the development of long-term capital markets. Such has been the case in Latin American countries of the Southern Cone, which have attempted to reduce the rate of inflation by not devaluing in line with differential rates of price increases at home and abroad. A shift in interest rate policies has been observed in Turkey where real interest rates on non-preferential loans of one-year maturity were about - 80 percent in early 1980 but became strongly positive following the interest rate reform undertaken in July 1980.

Boskin, 'Taxation Savings and the Rate of Interest', Journal of Political Economy, LXXXVI (1978), pp. S3-S28. 32. L. H. Summers, 'Capital Taxation and Accumulation in a Life Cycle Growth Model', American Economic Review, LXXI (1981) p. 536. 33. O. Evans, 'Tax Policy, the Interest Elasticity of Savings and Capital Accumulation: Numerical Analysis of Theoretical Models', American Economic Review, LXXIII (1983) Table 4. 34. L. H. Summers, 'The After Tax Rate of Return Affects Private Savings', American Economic Review, LXXIV (1984) p.

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