By Ann Finney Batiza Ph.D.
Learn intimately how the govt. and overseas corporations are operating to control using biotechnological recommendations, akin to cloning, and get a glimpse of the way forward for biotechnology within the worldwide society. a while 12+
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Extra info for Bioinformatics, Genomics, And Proteomics: Getting the Big Picture (Biotechnology in the 21st Century)
The code must be transcribed into another molecule called mRNA that can travel out of the nucleus. The enzyme RNA 33 34 BIOINFORMATICS, GENOMICS, AND PROTEOMICS polymerase makes mRNA by using a portion of one side of the DNA molecule as a template. In cells more complex than bacteria, the mRNA is capped and the introns spliced out, and a poly-A tail is added before the mRNA leaves the nucleus. The mRNA is translated into a particular protein chain outside of the nucleus. A workbench made of both protein and RNA grabs each mRNA molecule and holds it so that other RNA molecules called transfer RNA can bring particular amino acids into place to be snapped together like beads in a necklace to make a protein chain.
There, tRNAs bring individual amino acids one at a time to be added to a growing chain of amino acids that is a protein. DNA, Proteins, and Cells are the dark structures inside each cell’s nucleus. Each chromosome contains both protein and one long, thin molecule of DNA. In the late 1800s and early 1900s, scientists thought that chromosomes might be involved in heredity. They followed the structures of duplicated chromosomes by looking at their movements using microscopes. If new cells were going to have the same genetic information, it was important that the parental cell made an extra set of each of its chromosomes before dividing.
The variations in our genes that code for the making of imperfect channels are often inherited from our parents. For example, long QT syndrome 1 is caused by a defect in a potassium channel encoded by a gene on our 11th chromosome. Q and T are letters on the electrocardiogram, the tracing of the electrical impulses of our beating hearts, and long QT means that a certain part takes a bit too long. The malfunctioning potassium channels of people with the long QT syndrome can cause cardiac arrhythmias and sometimes sudden death.