By K. Shimizu
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Extra info for Bacterial cellular metabolic systems: Metabolic regulation of a cell system with 13C-metabolic flux analysis
The term ‘fermentation’ originated from wine-making, thus becoming associated with the idea of cells, gas (CO2) production, and the production of organic by-products (Doelle, 1975). , 2002). 16, where NADH re-oxidation is critical for regeneration of NAD+ for the metabolism to continue. From research on electron transport systems of microbial metabolism, it may be reasonable to use the term ‘fermentation’ for the processes that have organic compounds as terminal acceptors (Doelle, 1975). However, with this definition, acetic acid bacteria may not be fermentative but respire aerobically.
Quinones may be subdivided into two groups, one of which comprises a benzoquinone called ubiquinone or coenzyme Q, with the latter (CoQ) being mostly used in biochemical and clinical research. 14). The second group contains the naphthoquinones menaquinone (vitamin K2, MK, or MKn) and demethyl/menaquinone (DMK or DMKn). Animal cells synthesize UQ only, and MK is obtained from the diet (Soballe and Poole, 1999). In prokaryotes, MK is utilized in pyrimidine biosynthesis under anaerobic conditions (Gibson and Cox, 1993).
2), a multi-enzyme complex system, similar to PDH. 5). 1). 5 Acetate metabolism Microorganisms such as E. coli produce acetate from AcCoA by the so-called overflow metabolism, while ethanol is formed from PYR in yeast, etc. by a similar mechanism. 8). 1] converts AceP and ADP to acetate (Ace) and ATP in reversible reactions. Note that the cells may require ATP by the Pta-Ack pathway as the second energy source during high growth rates and anaerobic conditions, and that the Pta-Ack pathway may play an important role in the regulation of AceP, where AceP plays a role in metabolic regulation, as will be explained later in this book.