By Ian J. Bateman, Andrew A. Lovett, Julii S. Brainard
The complicated real-world interactions among the financial system and the surroundings shape either the point of interest of and major barrier to utilized study in the box of environmental economics. even if, geographical details platforms (GIS) permit economists to take on such complexity head on via at once incorporating various datasets into utilized study instead of resorting to simplifying and infrequently unrealistic assumptions. This cutting edge ebook applies GIS thoughts to spatial cost-benefit research of a fancy and topical land use switch problem--the conversion of agricultural land to multipurpose woodland--looking intimately at matters comparable to chance bills, bushes yield, game, carbon garage, etc.,
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Extra info for Applied Environmental Economics: A GIS Approach to Cost-Benefit Analysis
Recreation: valuation methods 17 assets but not the beneﬁts of doing so. 1 Certainly such information is insufﬁcient for adequate CBA appraisals. We therefore reject the use of pricing techniques and turn to consider the more theoretically rigorous valuation methods. The valuation methods all ultimately rely upon individual preferences. However, within this genre two distinct categories of approach can be deﬁned: methods based upon preferences which are revealed through purchases by individuals of marketpriced allied goods; and methods which rely upon expressed preferences elicited through questionnaire surveys.
See, for example, Hanemann et al. (1991); Langford et al. (1996); Bateman et al. (2001b). See, for example, Rowe et al. (1996). 20 Applied Environmental Economics With the questionnaire complete, the process moves to the survey stage to obtain responses. In so doing the relevant population of either users or non-users, or a mix of the two, must be determined. User surveys may be conducted either on or off site while non-user surveys are restricted to the latter locations. In both cases either face-to-face or mail/telephone surveys may be used, each of which has its own merits and drawbacks.
6,7 Two ethical positions which have had a major impact upon the development of economic thought are the libertarian and utilitarian schools of thought. The libertarian view, which may be traced from John Locke and Adam Smith to Robert Nozick (1974), emphasises respect for the rights of individuals. A fundamental concept here concerns the just acquisition of property. This has been interpreted as emphasising both the rights of ownership and also the requirement of appropriate payment or transfer in return for acquisition.