By John Baylis
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Additional resources for Anglo-American Defence Relations 1939–1980: The Special Relationship
Personality clashes, departmental interests and national sensitivity over security on occasions created difficulties and friction between (and within) the intelligence agencies of both countries. 135 Serious as some of these problems were, however, it would be difficult to overexaggerate the vital nature of this cooperation for the Allied war effort as a whole. 136 As Ronald Lewin has shown: The fact remains that after Americans flrst became fully involved in ULTRA they entered into an enormous inheritance which they did not squander.
According to the Articles of Agreement both parties agreed: never to use nuclear weapons against each other; nor to use them against other states without each other's consent; and not to pass on information to other countries without each other's consent. At the same time, to overcome American sensitivities on the matter Britain agreed that any post-war advantages of an industrial or commercial kind would be dealt with 'as between the United States and Great Britain on terms to be specified by the President of the United States to the Prime Minister of Great Britain'.
This was particularly seen in the reaction to the obligations set out in the Quebec Agreement. According to the agreement the consent of both parties was to be secured before the bomb was used. In fact when the bomb was completed Britain played virtually no part in the decision to use it against Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Japan was the target designated in the Hyde Park aide-memoire but little discussion took place subsequently about the exact targets. Churchill, mindful of the limitations of Britain's position, did not wish to be too legalistic about the clause.