By Benoit Dufort
Analog try out sign iteration utilizing Periodic SigmaDelta-Encoded Data Streams provides a brand new strategy to generate top of the range analog signs with low complexity. The thought of periodic SigmaDelta-encoded bitstreams is gifted alongside with a suite of empirical tables to assist decide on the fitting parameters of a bitstream. An optimization process can also be defined to aid decide upon a section series with the specified attributes. a wide number of indications could be generated utilizing this process. Silicon implementation matters are mentioned with a selected emphasis on quarter overhead and straightforwardness of layout. One FPGA circuit and 3 various silicon implementations are awarded in addition to experimental effects. it's proven that easy designs are in a position to producing very excessive precision signals-on-chip. The strategy is additional prolonged to multi-bit sign new release the place it really is proven how one can elevate the functionality of arbitrary waveform, turbines usually present in previous and present-day mixed-signal testers. No differences are required, basically the numbers in reminiscence are replaced. 3 assorted calibration concepts to minimize the consequences of the AWG's non-linearities also are brought, including aiding experimental facts.
the focus of this article is to explain an area-efficient method for analog sign iteration utilizing SigmaDelta-encoded facts movement. The major features of the approach are:
- excessive caliber signs (SFDR of one hundred ten dB observed);
- huge number of signs generated;
- Bitstreams simply received with a quick optimization software;
- sturdy frequency solution, appropriate with coherent sampling;
- basic and quickly undefined implementation;
- regularly electronic, other than an simply testable 1-bit DAC and doubtless a reconstruction filter out;
- reminiscence already on hand on-chip could be reused, lowering sector overhead;
- Designs might be integrated into present CAD instruments;
- excessive frequency iteration.
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Extra info for Analog Test Signal Generation Using Periodic ΣΔ-Encoded Data Streams
If N is increased to 2048, the number of harmonics in the same frequency range will increase. The SFDR also increases as shown in Figure 3-14(b). When a large number of points is used, as in Figure 3-14(c), the harmonics are closely spaced and the noise becomes more uniform, closer to a noise density rather than a discrete line spectrum. It is useful to derive an expression for the SFDR and SNR of periodic bit streams versus their length for a given modulator NTF. In a similar manner that was used in , but this time for periodic signals, an expression for the PSD of the noise component of the bit stream can be calculated.
3-5. The figure on the left represents the PSD of the previous II-bit quantizer example operating with a sampling rate of I MHz and consisting of 512 points. The one on the right is for the same quantizer and input but running at 16 MHz and consisting of 8192 points. 22), an improvement of 3 dB in SNR is achieved every time the OSR (F,/FBW) is doubled. Hence, we can expect a 12 dB improvement in SNR with 16 times OSR. Interesting enough, our simulations results given in Fig. 3-5 agree quite closely with this result.
We find that a bandpass modulator is well suited for handling high-speed signals. When multi-bit quantization is required, the I-bit quantizer of Fig. 3-7 is simply replaced by a multi-bit quantizer of appropriate resolution. Forming the actual hardware realization will not be discussed in this text since only software :EL\ modulators with IEEE-Standardized floating point number representation are used. With such number representation the actual :EL\ modulation structure has little, if any, effect on the modulator behavior.