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By S. Bilensky

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Indeed, the number of effective light degrees of freedom affects the expansion rate of the Universe; the larger this number, the larger is the expansion rate and hence the higher the freeze out temperature of the weak interactions that inter-convert neutrons and protons. Thus, the neutron to proton ratio is correspondingly higher and so is the primordial helium yield. These events took place when the temperature of the universe was of the order of 1 MeV and therefore it is clear that neutrino masses at the 1 eV scale or less play no significant role in primordial light element formation.

1 [175]). This processing is dictated by the continuity, Euler and Boltzmann equations that govern the physics of the perturbations of the cosmic fluid. 1 k (h Mpc –1) Figure 14: Effect of a 1 eV neutrino on P (k) as found by the authors of Ref. [176]. e on the power spectrum P (k). Once decoupled very early in the history of the Universe (at T ∼ 1 MeV) neutrinos free-stream at almost the speed of light. This is so until after their momenta become on the order of their mass and less and hence they enter a non-relativistic regime.

Most famous is the 1054 supernova that produced the Crab nebula and the Crab pulsar. The 1006 supernova is the brightest supernova of all times. The last galactic supernovae have been observed by naked eye in 1572 (Tycho Brahe) and 1604 (Joannes Kepler). In the last centuries many supernovae occurring in other galaxies have been observed with telescopes because their luminosity is comparable to that of an entire galaxy. Supernova SN1987A, which occurred on 23 February 1987 in the Large Magellanic Cloud, is the best studied of all supernovae and it is the only one which has been detected also through its neutrino burst.

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