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By Matthew Feldman (eds.)

Ten essays at the nature of fascism via a number one student within the box, targeting the right way to comprehend and practice fascist ideology to varied activities because the 20th century, Mussolini's prophesied 'fascist century'. comprises reviews of fascism's tried temporal revolution; Nazism as prolonged case-study; and fascism's postwar evolution.

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There would surely be some mileage in analysing the Zeppelinfeld, the vast parade ground constructed by Albert Speer to stage the Party congresses in Nuremberg as a ritual space deliberately created as a generator of ancient shamanic energies within a modern context. Here the swirling swastika replaced the archetypal vortex64 as the symbol of access to a higher reality, while Hitler acted as chief shaman, attended by lesser medicine-men to induce a collective ‘I am no longer human. I am a Titan.

Using Verona as a case study, Berezin documents the extraordinary lengths to which the regime went to reshape the experience of time and history itself through a combination of official events which she classifies as celebrations, symposia, commemorations, demonstrations, and inaugurations. In just 20 years (1922–1942) the citizens of Verona could participate in 727 such events: an average of 36 per year, or one every ten days! The ultimate purpose of such a systematic subsuming of private time by regime time was the obliteration of the old self, and the making of a Fascist self.

32 The temporal implications of this ‘religious’ conception of Fascism are made clear in Gentile’s subsequent definition (my emphasis) for the Enciclopedia Italiana: The world seen through Fascism is not this material world which appears on the surface, in which man is an individual separated from all others and standing by himself, and in which he is governed by a natural law that makes him instinctively live a life of selfish and momentary pleasure. 33 The Fascist bid to regenerate time through social engineering In concrete terms, the reordering of ‘the interior and exterior social life’ to create a ‘new style of Italian life’ led to the ritual style of politics striking generations of scholars as the outstanding feature of life under Fascism.

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